Skip to main content
National College of Ireland

NCI LIBRARY

Cloud Computing Subject Guide: Harvard & IEEE Referencing

Introduction


The Harvard and IEEE referencing styles are the most commonly used referencing styles for this subject. The Harvard style records the author surname and publication year within your written work and then provides a Bibliography at the end of your work. The IEEE style uses a numerical system within your written work which then corresponds to the list of references at the end of your work.

Which style do you choose? You will need to consult with your lecturer to find out which referencing style they require you to use.

See the Harvard section or the IEEE section of the NCI Library Referencing and Avoiding Plagiarism LibGuide for further details on how to use these referencing styles.

Getting Started

Harvard referencing consists of two components:

  1. In-text citations in your paper
  2. The bibliography at the end of your paper

The examples given below are for books with a single author.

In-text citations:

When using the Harvard referencing style, a reference needs to be made at the point at which a source is referred to in the text of your work. This consists of a short, basic reference (Author, Year) inserted every time you use or refer to someone else’s work in-text.

Paraphrase/summary 

Reidy (2015) suggests that it may be difficult to fill some vacancies as the role may be thought to be low paid or considered to be difficult.

Direct quote

“Some vacancies are difficult to fill due to the nature of the job itself. It may be perceived to be unpleasant, dangerous, badly paid or too stressful” (Reidy, 2015, p. 46).

NB: When a direct quote is used, include the page number(s) the quote was taken from and add it to the in-text citation as show above. If you are paraphrasing, you do not need to include the page number(s) in your in-text citation.

Bibliography reference:

When using the Harvard referencing style, a reference needs to be made in your bibliography at the end of your work. A bibliography provides comprehensive details of the sources used throughout your written work.

Example Reidy, L. (2015) Make that grade: Human resource management. 4th edn. Dublin: Gill and Macmillan.

IEEE referencing consists of two components:

  1. In-text citations in your paper
  2. The list of references at the end of your paper

The examples given below are for books with a single author.

In-text citations:

When using the IEEE referencing style, a reference needs to be made at the point at which a source is referred to in the text of your work. This consists of a short, basic numerical reference in square brackets (e.g. [1]).

Paraphrase/summary

The physical systems which are used during processing of applications can be termed as computing substrate [1].

Direct quote

Marinescu [1, p. 56] defines computing substrate as “a generic term for the physical systems used during the processing of an application.”

NB: When a direct quote is used, include the page number(s) the quote was taken from and add it to the in-text citation as show above. If you are paraphrasing, you do not need to include the page number(s) in your in-text citation.

List of references:

When using the IEEE referencing style, a reference needs to be made in a list of references at the end of your work. The list of references provides comprehensive details of the sources used throughout your written work and is ordered numerically.

Example

[1] D. C. Marinescu, Cloud Computing: Theory and Practice, 2nd ed. Cambridge, MA: Elsevier, 2018.

[2] T. Connolly and C. Begg, Database Systems: A Practical Approach to Design, Implementation and Management, 6th ed. London: Pearson, 2015.

 

Disclaimer

Whilst every possible effort has been made to accurately and consistently reflect the APA, Harvard and IEEE styles in the examples provided, small errors may occur. This LibGuide is regularly revised and any errors which are identified will be rectified immediately. Please note, there are also variations within these styles regarding certain details – should your reference vary slightly from an example contained within this LibGuide, it is important that you are consistent with the variation when presenting and formatting your references, as long as it does not follow a contrary style to the one you should be using.

Need Advice for your Assignments or Research?

Notice:

Owing to the current isolation restrictions, we cannot currently offer face to face appointments, but please be aware we are still fully operational in terms of offering remote assistance for your assignments and research. If we can be of any help whatsoever, please do not hesitate to email us.

Keith
Brittle

Cory
Newbigging

 


For Quick Queries:


Visit our page:

https://libguides.ncirl.ie/libraryhelpcentre
Keep up to date on any library news and resources by following @NCILibrary on Facebook Twitter Instagram
Communications from the Library: Please note all communications from the library, concerning renewal of books, overdue books and reservations will be sent to your NCI student email account.