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Referencing and Avoiding Plagiarism: IEEE

The IEEE referencing style is based on the Chicago referencing style; it is widely used in the areas of computer science, software development and information technology. It is the style that the Institute of Electrical and Electronics (IEEE) specify for authors writing for their publications.

The IEEE style acknowledges a source at the exact sentence it is used within the written work and then provides a detailed reference of the source at the end of the written work in a list, which is titled References.

NB: Other referencing styles such as Harvard or APA may be used by your course – please consult with your lecturer to confirm which style they require you to use.

Getting Started

When referencing within the text using IEEE, citations are numbered in square brackets in the order in which they appear in the text. The first source referred to is numbered [1], the second [2] and so on. Each reference number should be enclosed in square brackets on the same line as the text, before any punctuation, with a space before the bracket.

Once a source has been given a number, the same number is used if the same source is mentioned again in your written work.

The list of references at the end of your written work is ordered numerically and provides full details of the sources used.

For further information on the IEEE referencing style, consult the following:

IEEE Reference Guide

When using the IEEE referencing style, a reference needs to be made at the point at which a source is referred to in the text of your work. This consists of a short, basic numerical reference in square brackets (e.g. [1]).

Example:

“In recent years, there have been significant advances in the development of high-performance personal computers and networks” [2, p.107].

NB: When a direct quote is used, include the page number(s) the quote was taken from and add it to the in-text citation as shown above. If you are paraphrasing, you do not need to include the page number(s) in your in-text citation.

When using the IEEE referencing style, a reference needs to be made in a list of references at the end of your work. The list of references provides comprehensive details of the sources used throughout your written work and is ordered numerically.

If a reader wants to know the full details of a source you have used, they can refer to your list of references.

Example:

References

[1] D. C. Marinescu, Cloud Computing: Theory and Practice, 2nd ed. Cambridge, MA: Elsevier, 2018.

[2] T. Connolly and C. Begg, Database Systems: A Practical Approach to Design, Implementation and Management, 6th ed. London: Pearson, 2015.

IEEE - Core Sources

Book - Single author

Components

[Reference number] Author Initial(s). Surname, Title of Book (in italics), edition (only include if not the first). Place of Publication: Publisher, Year of publication.

Example

[1] D. C. Marinescu, Cloud Computing: Theory and Practice, 2nd ed. Cambridge, MA: Elsevier, 2018.

Book - Two authors

Components

[Reference number] Author Initial(s). Surname and Author Initial(s). Surname, Title of Book (in italics), edition (only include if not the first). Place of Publication: Publisher, Year of publication.

Example

[2] T. Connolly and C. Begg, Database Systems: A Practical Approach to Design, Implementation, and Management, 6th ed. London: Pearson, 2015.

Book - Three or more authors

Components

[Reference number] Author Initial(s). Surname, Author Initial(s). Surname, Author Initial(s). Surname, and Author Initial(s). Surname, Title of Book (in italics), edition (only include if not the first). Place of Publication: Publisher, Year of publication.

Example

[3] I. H. Witten, E. Frank, M. A. Hall, and C. J. Pal, Data Mining: Practical Machine Learning Tools and Techniques, 4th ed. Cambridge, MA: Elsevier, 2017.

Book - Corporate author

Components

[Reference number] Corporate Author Name, Title of Book (in italics), edition (only include if not the first). Place of Publication: Publisher, Year of publication.

Example

[4] Microsoft, Microsoft .NET Fundamentals: Exam 98-372. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2013.

NB: See the NCI Library Referencing Guide for further details including additional sources, in-text citations, and list of references.

Chapter of an edited book - Single author

Components

[Reference number] Author Initial(s). Surname, “Title of chapter,” (in double quotation marks) in Title of Book (in italics), edition (only include if not the first)., Editor(s) Initial(s). Surname, Editor(s) Initial(s). Surname, and Editor(s) Initial(s). Surname, Eds. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year of publication, pp. page numbers of the chapter.

Example

[5] D. Paul, “What is business analysis?,” in Business Analysis, 3rd ed., D. Paul, J. Cadle, and D. Yeates, Eds. Swindon: BCS, 2014, pp. 1-18.

Chapter of an edited book - Two authors

Components

[Reference number] Author Initial(s). Surname and Author Initial(s). Surname, “Title of chapter,” (in double quotation marks) in Title of Book (in italics), edition (only include if not the first)., Editor Initial(s). Surname and Editor Initial(s). Surname, Eds. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year of publication, pp. page numbers of chapter.

Example

[6] G. Lin and M. Devine, “The role of networks in cloud computing,” in Handbook of Cloud Computing, B. Furht and A. Escalante, Eds. New York: Springer, 2010, pp. 65-82.

NB: See the NCI Library Referencing Guide for further details including additional sources, in-text citations, and list of references.

eBook - Single author

Components

[Reference number] Author Initial(s). Surname, Title of eBook (in italics), edition (only include if not the first)., Place of Publication: Publisher, Year of publication. [Online]. Available: Database homepage url or full url (if internet source) [Accessed on: Month (abbrev. except May/June/July) Day, Year].

OR

[Reference number] Author Initial(s). Surname, Title of eBook (in italics), edition (only include if not the first)., Place of Publication: Publisher, Year of publication. doi:

Example

[7] A. Harris, HTML5 Game Development for Dummies. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2013. [Online]. Available: http://proquestcombo.safaribooksonline.com/ [Accessed on: June 16, 2017].

eBook - Two authors

Components

[Reference number] Author Initial(s). Surname and Author Initial(s). Surname, Title of eBook (in italics), edition (only include if not the first)., Place of Publication: Publisher, Year of publication. [Online]. Available: Database homepage url or full url (if internet source) [Accessed on: Month (abbrev. except May/June/July) Day, Year].

OR

[Reference number] Author Initial(s). Surname and Author Initial(s). Surname, Title of eBook (in italics), edition (only include if not the first)., Place of Publication: Publisher, Year of publication. doi:

Example

[8] P. Wilton and J. McPeak, Beginning JavaScript, 4th ed., Chichester: Wiley, 2009. [Online]. Available: https://www.dawsonera.com/ [Accessed on: Jan. 20, 2018].

eBook - Three or more authors

Components

[Reference number] Author Initial(s). Surname, Author Initial(s). Surname, and Author Initial(s). Surname, Title of eBook (in italics), edition (only include if not the first)., Place of Publication: Publisher, Year of publication. [Online]. Available: Database homepage url or full url (if internet source) [Accessed on: Month (abbrev. except May/June/July) Day, Year].

OR

[Reference number] Author Initial(s). Surname, Author Initial(s). Surname, and Author Initial(s). Surname, Title of eBook (in italics), edition (only include if not the first)., Place of Publication: Publisher, Year of publication. doi:

Example

[9] A. Cooper, R. Reimann, and D. Cronin, About Face 3: The Essentials of Interaction Design, 3rd ed., Indianapolis: Wiley, 2007. [Online]. Available: https://www.dawsonera.com/ [Accessed on: Sept. 18, 2017].

NB: See the NCI Library Referencing Guide for further details including additional sources, in-text citations, and list of references.

Journal article - Single author

Components

[Reference number] Author Initial(s). Surname, “Title of article,” (in double quotation marks) Name of Journal (abbrev., in italics), volume number (vol.), issue number (no.), pp. page numbers of article, Month(s) (abbrev. except May/June/July) Year of publication.

Example

[10] E. Bauer, “Improving operational efficiency of applications via cloud computing,” IEEE Cloud Comput., vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 12-19, Jan./Feb. 2018.

Journal article - Two authors

Components

[Reference number] Author Initial(s). Surname and Author Initial(s). Surname, “Title of article,” (in double quotation marks) Name of Journal (abbrev., in italics), volume number (vol.), issue number (no.), pp. page numbers of article, Month(s) (abbrev. except May/June/July) Year of publication.

Example

[11] A. Mosenia and N. K. Jha, “A comprehensive study of security of internet-of- things,” IEEE Trans. Emerg. Top. Comput., vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 586-602, Oct.-Dec. 2017.

Journal article - Three or more authors

Components

[Reference number] Author Initial(s). Surname, Author Initial(s). Surname, Author Initial(s). Surname, and Author Initial(s). Surname, “Title of article,” (in double quotation marks) Name of Journal (abbrev., in italics), volume number (vol.), issue number (no.), pp. page numbers of article, Month(s) (abbrev. except May/June/July) Year of publication.

Example

[12] K. Chard, S. Caton, O. Rana, and K. Bubendorfer, “Social clouds: A retrospective,” IEEE Cloud Comput., vol. 2, no. 6, pp. 30-40, Nov./Dec. 2015.

NB: See the NCI Library Referencing Guide for further details including additional sources, in-text citations, and list of references.

eJournal article - Single author

Components

[Reference number] Author Initial(s). Surname, “Title of article,” (in double quotation marks) Name of Journal (abbrev., in italics), volume number (vol.), issue number (no.), pp. page numbers of article, Month(s) (abbrev. except May/June/July) Year of publication. doi:

OR

[Reference number] Author Initial(s). Surname, “Title of article,” (in double quotation marks) Name of Journal (abbrev., in italics), volume number (vol.), issue number (no.), pp. page numbers of article, Month(s) (abbrev. except May/June/July) Year of publication. [Online]. Available: Database Name, Database homepage url or full url (if internet source) [Accessed on: Month (abbrev. except May/June/July) Day, Year].

Example

[13] M. Di Pierro, “What is the blockchain?,” Comput. Sci. & Eng., vol. 19, no. 5, pp. 92-95, Sept./Oct. 2017. doi: 10.1109/MCSE.2017.3421554

OR

[13] M. Di Pierro, “What is the blockchain?,” Comput. Sci. & Eng., vol. 19, no. 5, pp. 92-95, Sept./Oct. 2017. [Online]. Available: IEEE Xplore, https://www.ieee.org/ [Accessed on: May 1, 2018].

eJournal article - Two authors

Components

[Reference number] Author Initial(s). Surname and Author Initial(s). Surname, “Title of article,” (in double quotation marks) Name of Journal (abbrev., in italics), volume number (vol.), issue number (no.), pp. page numbers of article, Month(s) (abbrev. except May/June/July) Year of publication. doi:

OR

[Reference number] Author Initial(s). Surname and Author Initial(s). Surname, “Title of article,” (in double quotation marks) Name of Journal (abbrev., in italics), volume number (vol.), issue number (no.), pp. page numbers of article, Month(s) (abbrev. except May/June/July) Year of publication. [Online]. Available: Database Name, Database homepage url or full url (if internet source) [Accessed on: Month (abbrev. except May/June/July) Day, Year].

Example

[14] M. Hall and S. Caton, “Am I who I say I am? Unobtrusive self-representation and personality recognition on Facebook,” PLoS One, vol. 12, no. 9, pp. 1-23, Sept. 2017. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0184417

eJournal article - Three or more authors

Components

[Reference number] Author Initial(s). Surname, Author Initial(s). Surname, Author Initial(s). Surname, and Author Initial(s). Surname, “Title of article,” (in double quotation marks) Name of Journal (abbrev., in italics), volume number (vol.), issue number (no.), pp. page numbers of article, Month(s) (abbrev. except May/June/July) Year of publication. doi:

OR

[Reference number] Author Initial(s). Surname, Author Initial(s). Surname, Author Initial(s). Surname, and Author Initial(s). Surname, “Title of article,” (in double quotation marks) Name of Journal (abbrev., in italics), volume number (vol.), issue number (no.), pp. page numbers of article, Month(s) (abbrev. except May/June/July) Year of publication. [Online]. Available: Database Name, Database homepage url or full url (if internet source) [Accessed on: Month (abbrev. except May/June/July) Day, Year].

Example

[15] Y. Li, Y-S. Jeong, B-S. Shin, and J. H. Park, “Crowdsensing multimedia data: Security and privacy issues,” IEEE MultiMed., vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 58-66, Oct.-Dec. 2017. doi: 10.1109/MMUL.2017.4031306

NB: See the NCI Library Referencing Guide for further details including additional sources, in-text citations, and list of references.

Conference paper - Three or more authors

Components

[Reference number] Author Initial(s). Surname, Author Initial(s). Surname, and Author Initial(s). Surname, “Title of paper,” (in double quotation marks) in Name of Conference (abbrev., in italics), Location, Date(s) Month, Year (all in italics), pp. page numbers of conference paper. doi: or [Online]. Available: Database Name, Database homepage url or full url (if internet source) [Accessed on: Month (abbrev. except May/June/July) Day, Year] (only include access information if no doi).

Example

[16] A. Bansel, H. González-Vélez, and A. E. Chis, "Cloud-based NoSQL data migration," in 2016 24th Euromicro Int. Conf. Parallel, Distributed, and Network-Based Processing (PDP), Heraklion, Crete, Greece, February 17-19, 2016, pp. 224-231. [Online]. Available: IEEE Xplore, https://www.ieee.org/ [Accessed on: Mar. 1, 2018].

NB: See the NCI Library Referencing Guide for further details including additional sources, in-text citations, and list of references.

Webpage

Components

[Reference number] Author Initial(s). Surname, or Organisation/Company Name. “Title of webpage.” (in double quotation marks) Name of website. Accessed: Month (abbrev. except May/June/July) Day, Year. [Online]. Available: url 

Example

[17] J. Holdsworth, and M. Scapicchio. "What is deep learning?" IBM.com. Accessed: June. 19, 2024. [Online.] Available: https://www.ibm.com/topics/deep-learning

Document from a webpage (Report/PDF etc.)

Components

[Reference number] Author Initial(s). Surname, “Title of document,” (in double quotation marks) Year of publication. Accessed: Month (abbrev. except May/June/July) Day, Year. [Online]. Available:

Example

[18] H. Dixon, “Annual Report of the Data Protection Commissioner of Ireland,” 2022. Accessed: May 1, 2024. [Online]. Available: https://www.dataprotection.ie/sites/default/files/uploads/2023-03/DPC%20AR%20English_web.pdf

NB: See the NCI Library Referencing Guide for further details including additional sources, in-text citations, and list of references.

Newspaper article - Print

Components

[Reference number] Author Initial(s). Surname, “Title of article,” (in double quotation marks) Title of Newspaper (in italics): Section (if applicable, also in italics), p. page number of article, Month (abbrev. except May/June/July) Day, Year of publication.

Example

[19] O. Keogh, “Motor industry faces growing threat of cybersecurity attacks,” The Irish Times: Business Technology, p. 6, Apr. 12, 2018.

Newspaper article - Online

Components

[Reference number] Author Initial(s). Surname, “Title of article,” (in double quotation marks) Title of Newspaper (in italics): Section (if applicable, also in italics), Month (abbrev. except May/June/July) Day,Year of publication. [Online]. Available: url of online newspaper homepage [Accessed on: Month (abbrev. except May/June/July) Day, Year].

Example

[20] A. Hern, “Cambridge Analytica scandal ‘highlights need for AI regulation’,” The Guardian: Tech, Apr. 16, 2018. [Online]. Available: www.theguardian.com [Accessed on: Apr. 16, 2018].

NB: See the NCI Library Referencing Guide for further details including additional sources, in-text citations, and list of references.

IEEE - Additional Sources

Blog - Single author

Components

[Reference number] First Name Initial(s). Surname. “Title of blog post,” (in double quotation marks) Blog Name. Accessed: Month (abbrev. except May/June/July) Day, Year. [Online]. Available: url

Example

[20] B. Schmarzo. “What tomorrow’s business leaders need to know about machine learning.” Data Science Central. Accessed: June 27, 2017. [Online]. Available: https://infocus.dellemc.com/william_ schmarzo/machine-learning-primer-business-leaders/

Facebook/X/Instagram 

Components

[Reference number] Author Initial(s). Surname, “Text of post,” (in double quotation marks) Name of Platform. Accessed: Month (abbrev. except May/June/July) Day, Year of post. [Online]. Available: url

Example

[21] Stanford HAI, “As more nations consider integrating autonomous AI agents in high-stakes military and diplomatic decision-making, a new @StanfordHAI policy brief explores the risks,” X. Accessed: Apr. 19, 2024. [Online.] Available: https://x.com/StanfordHAI/status/1793266523273904429

Online Video - Youtube 

Components

Video Owner/Creator, Location (if available). Title of Video (in italics). (Release date). Accessed: Month Day, Year. [Online Video]. Available: url

Example

[22] Amazon Web Services. What is Cloud Computing?. (July 15, 2021). Accessed: June 30, 2024. [Online Video]. Available: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mxT233EdY5c

TV/Radio Broadcast

Components

[Reference number] Author Initial(s). Surname, Responsibility (i.e. Speaker, Presenter, Producer etc.), Title of Broadcast (in italics): Subtitle (if applicable, in italics) [Type of broadcast]. Location: Distributor, Month (abbrev. except May/June/July) Day, Year.

Example

[23] S. O’Rourke, Presenter, Today with Sean O’Rourke: The Future of Technology [Radio broadcast]. Dublin: RTÉ Radio 1, May 30, 2016.

Podcast

Components

[Reference number] Artist/Creator Initial(s). Surname, Responsibility (i.e. Speaker, Presenter, Producer etc.), “Title of episode,” (in double quotation marks) Title of Podcast Series (in italics), Month (abbrev. except May/June/July) Day, Year of recording. Place of Recording: Production Company. [Podcast]. Available: url [Accessed: Month (abbrev. except May/June/July) Day, Year].

Example

[24] J. Pardue, Producer, “Podcast #119 – This podcast is definitely a simulation,” Stack Overflow, Mar. 14, 2018. New York, NY: Stack Overflow. [Podcast]. Available: https://stackoverflow.blog/podcasts/ [Accessed: Apr. 18, 2018].

Computer Software/Programme

Components

[Reference number] Author Initial(s). Surname and Author Initial(s). Surname, Title (in italics), version. [Software]. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year of publication.

Example

[25] R. Ihaka and R. Gentleman, R, version 3.5.0. [Software]. Auckland, NZ: The R Foundation, 2018

Encyclopedia/Dictionary - Online

Components

[Reference number] Author Initial(s). Surname, “Title of encyclopedia/ dictionary entry,” (in double quotation marks) in Title of Encyclopedia/Dictionary (in italics), Publisher, Year. [Online]. Available: url of website homepage [Accessed: Month (abbrev. except May/June/July) Day, Year].

Example

[26] G. G. Belford, “Computer science,” in Encyclopaedia Britannica, Encyclopaedia Britannica Inc., 2017. [Online]. Available: https://www.britannica.com [Accessed: Apr. 18, 2018].

Legislation - Act

Components

[Reference number] Legislative body, Title of Legislation (in italics). Place of publication: Publisher, Year.

Example

[27] Government of Ireland, Data Protection Act. Dublin: Government of Ireland, 1988.

Legislation - EU Directive

Components

Title of Directive. [Online]. Available: url [Accessed: Month (abbrev. except May/June/July) Day, Year].

Example

[28] Directive 2014/95/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 22 October 2014 amending Directive 2013/34/EU as regards disclosure of non-financial and diversity information by certain large undertakings and groups. [Online]. Available: https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legalcontent/EN/TXT/?uri=CELEX%3A32014L0095 [Accessed: June 18, 2015].

Thesis/Dissertation - Online

Components

[Reference number] Author Initial(s). Surname, “Title of thesis/dissertation,” (in double quotation marks) Thesis/Dissertation type (i.e. Masters or Ph.D. Thesis/Dissertation etc.), Academic Dept (if known, abbrev.)., Name of University/College (abbrev.)., Location of University, Year of submission. [Online]. Available: url [Accessed: Month (abbrev. except May/June/July) Day, Year].

Example

[29] J. R. Elder, “Interactive visualisation for the discovery of cyber security threats,” Ph.D. Thesis, Faculty of Eng. and Physical Sci., Univ. of Surrey, Guildford, UK, 2017. [Online]. Available: http://epubs.surrey.ac.uk/842460/1/thesis.pdf [Accessed: Apr. 26, 2018].

Diagram/Chart/Image/Table - Print/Online

Components

Follow the instructions for the type of source from which the diagram/chart/image/table is taken, i.e. a book, journal article, (document from a) webpage etc.

N.B. If you use the exact same diagram/chart/image/table as featured within the source, make sure to give the exact caption title and put the in-text citation just beneath the diagram/chart/image/table with a page number (if applicable).

Patent/Standard

Components

[Reference number] Author Initial(s). Surname, Author Initial(s). Surname, Author Initial(s). Surname, and Author Initial(s). Surname, “Title of patent/standard,” (in double quotation marks) Country in which patent/standard is published and patent/standard number, Month (abbrev. except May/June/July) Day, Year of issue.

Example

[30] M. J. McArdle, B. A. Johnston, P. D. R. Nathan, and J. Dool, “Automatically configuring a computer firewall based on network connection,” United States Patent and Trademark Office US 7,284,267 B1, Mar. 8, 2001.

Dataset

Components

[Reference number] Author Initial(s). Surname and Author Initial(s), Date, “Title of Dataset,” Source. [Online]. Available: url

Example

[31] L. Bansal, Mar. 2024, “NASA: Asteroids Classification,” NASA JPL Center for NEO Studies (CNEOS). [Online]. Available: https://www.kaggle.com/datasets/lovishbansal123/nasa-asteroids-classification

Preprint - ArXiv

Components

[Reference number] First Name Initial(s). Surname, “Title of paper,” year, arXiv number (in italics).

Example

[32] S. Gholamian and D, Huh, “Reinforcement learning problem solving with large language models,” 2024, arXiv: 2404.18638.

                            NCI Library Referencing Guide,
5th edition

Check out the most recent edition of the NCI Library Referencing Guide. This guide provides further details on how to reference sources throughout your written work.

You can collect a hard copy of our guide at NCI Library or access the pdf by selecting the title or the icon of the guide above.


IEEE Referencing Quick Guide

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Disclaimer

Whilst every possible effort has been made to accurately and consistently reflect the APA, Harvard and IEEE styles in the examples provided, small errors may occur. This LibGuide is regularly revised and any errors which are identified will be rectified immediately. Please note, there are also variations within these styles regarding certain details – should your reference vary slightly from an example contained within this LibGuide, it is important that you are consistent with the variation when presenting and formatting your references, as long as it does not follow a contrary style to the one you should be using.

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