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Education, Learning and Teaching Subject Guide: APA & Harvard Referencing

Introduction

The APA and Harvard referencing styles are the most commonly used referencing styles for this subject. APA is based on an author-date system which includes in-text referencing throughout the written work and then full referencing details are provided at the end of the work in a list titled the Reference List.The Harvard style records the author surname and publication year within your written work and then provides a Bibliography at the end of your work.

 

Which style do you choose? You will need to consult with your lecturer to find out which referencing style they require you to use.

See the APA section or the Harvard section of the NCI Library Referencing and Avoiding Plagiarism LibGuide for further details on how to use these referencing styles.

Getting Started

Following the publication of the 7th edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association in October, 2019, some changes have been made to the APA referencing style. Below is a list of the main changes:

Sources with 3 or more authors
If your source has three or more authors, use the first author's surname followed by et al. for all mentions in-text.

Examples of in-text citations:

  • One author - Smith (2019) or (Smith, 2019)
  • Two authors - Jones and Brown (2019) or (Jones & Brown, 2019)
  • Three or more authors - Wilson et al. (2019) or (Wilson et al., 2019)
No longer required to include the terms 'doi:' or 'Retrieved from' in the full reference of electronic sources.
Only the hyperlink for the doi or the URL are required to be included in the full text reference of an electronic source.

DOI example:

Wood, W. (2017). Habit in personality and social psychology. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 21(4), 389.403. https://doi.org/10.1177/1088868317720362

URL example:

American Psychological Association (2019). About APA. https://www.apa.org/about/index

The place of publication is no longer required in the full text reference of books.
It is no longer required to include the place of publication followed by a colon before the name of the publisher in the full text reference of a book.

Example:

Santrock, J. W. (2015). Life-span development. McGraw-Hill.

For more information regarding the 7th edition of the APA manual, you can borrow a copy from the library (check availability) or take a look at these sources: https://apastyle.apa.org/ or https://apastyle.apa.org/instructional-aids/reference-guide.pdf

APA referencing consists of two components:

  1. In-text citations in your written work
  2. The reference lists at the end of your paper

The examples given below are for books with a single author.

In-text citations:

When using the APA referencing style, a reference needs to be made at the point at which a source is referred to in the text of your work. This consists of a short, basic reference (Author, Year, page number) inserted every time you use or refer to someone else’s work in-text.

Paraphrase/summary Santrock (2015) suggests that young adults realise that thinking cannot just be conceptual, but rather has to be more pragmatic (p. 420).
Direct Quote Young adults “understand that thinking can't always be abstract. In many instances, it must be realistic and pragmatic” (Santrock, 2015, p. 420).

NB: When a direct quote is used, include the page number(s) the quote was taken from and add it to the in-text citation as show above. If you are paraphrasing, you do not need to include the page number(s) in your in-text citation.

Reference list:

Santrock, J. W. (2015). Life-span development. (15th ed.). New York: McGraw Hill.

NB: If your bibliographic details for source span over more than one line, you will need to insert a hanging indentation. For more information, see the APA section of the NCI Library Referencing and Avoiding Plagiarism LibGuide.

Harvard referencing consists of two components:

  1. In-text citations in your paper
  2. The bibliography at the end of your paper

The examples given below are for books with a single author.

In-text citations:

When using the Harvard referencing style, a reference needs to be made at the point at which a source is referred to in the text of your work. This consists of a short, basic reference (Author, Year) inserted every time you use or refer to someone else’s work in-text.

Paraphrase/summary 

Reidy (2015) suggests that it may be difficult to fill some vacancies as the role may be thought to be low paid or considered to be difficult.

Direct quote

“Some vacancies are difficult to fill due to the nature of the job itself. It may be perceived to be unpleasant, dangerous, badly paid or too stressful” (Reidy, 2015, p. 46).

NB: When a direct quote is used, include the page number(s) the quote was taken from and add it to the in-text citation as show above. If you are paraphrasing, you do not need to include the page number(s) in your in-text citation.

Bibliography reference:

When using the Harvard referencing style, a reference needs to be made in your bibliography at the end of your work. A bibliography provides comprehensive details of the sources used throughout your written work.

Example Reidy, L. (2015) Make that grade: Human resource management. 4th edn. Dublin: Gill and Macmillan.

Disclaimer

Whilst every possible effort has been made to accurately and consistently reflect the APA, Harvard and IEEE styles in the examples provided, small errors may occur. This LibGuide is regularly revised and any errors which are identified will be rectified immediately. Please note, there are also variations within these styles regarding certain details – should your reference vary slightly from an example contained within this LibGuide, it is important that you are consistent with the variation when presenting and formatting your references, as long as it does not follow a contrary style to the one you should be using.

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