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Referencing and Avoiding Plagiarism: Harvard

Harvard Referencing Style

The Harvard referencing style is one of the main styles used in the National College of Ireland. It is also known as the ‘author date’ system. It is one of the most common systems used internationally and is frequently the standard house style for academic journals.

The Harvard style records just the author surname and publication year within the text of the written work and then provides the full bibliographic details in the list of references at the end, which is titled Bibliography.

NB: Other referencing styles such as APA or IEEE may be used by your course – please consult with your lecturer to confirm which style they require you to use.

Getting Started

When using the Harvard referencing style, a reference needs to be made at the point at which a source is referred to in the text of your work. This consists of a short, basic reference (Author, Year) inserted every time you use or refer to someone else’s work in-text.

Example:

“In recent years, there have been significant advances in the development of high-performance personal computers and networks” (Connolly and Begg, 2015, p. 107).

NB: When a direct quote is used, include the page number(s) the quote was taken from and add it to the in-text citation as show above. If you are paraphrasing, you do not need to include the page number(s) in your in-text citation.

When using the Harvard referencing style, a reference needs to be made in your bibliography at the end of your work. A bibliography provides comprehensive details of the sources used throughout your written work.

If a reader wants to know the full details of a source you have used, they can refer to your bibliography.

Example:

Bibliography

Connolly, T. and Begg, C. (2015) Database systems: A practical approach to design, implementation and management. 6th edn. Boston: Pearson Education.

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Harvard - Core Sources


Book - Single author

Components Author Surname, Initial(s). (Year of publication) Title of book (in italics). edition (only include if not the first). Place of Publication: Publisher.
Example Reidy, L. (2015) Make that grade: Human resource management. 4th edn. Dublin: Gill and Macmillan.

Book - Two authors

Components Author Surname, Initial(s). and Author Surname, Initial(s). (Year of publication) Title of book (in italics). edition (only include if not the first). Place of Publication: Publisher.
Example Laudon, K. C. and Laudon, J. P. (2013) Essentials of management information systems. 10th edn. Harlow: Pearson.

Book - Three or more authors

Components Author Surname, Initial(s)., Author Surname, Initial(s)., Author Surname, Initial(s)., Author Surname, Initial(s). and Author Surname, Initial(s). (Year of publication) Title of book (in italics). edition (only include if not the first). Place of Publication: Publisher.
Example Hillier, D., Ross, S., Westerfield, R., Jaffe, J. and Jordan, B. (2016) Corporate finance. 3rd edn. London: McGraw-Hill Higher Education.

Book - Corporate author

Components

Company/Corporate Name (Year of publication) Title of book (in italics). Edition (only include if not the first). Place of Publication: Publisher.

Example

Project Management Institute (2013) A guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK* guide). 5th edn. Newton Square, PA: Project Management Institute.

NB: See the NCI Library Referencing Guide for further details including additional sources, in-text citations, and bibliographies.

Book - Editor(s)

Components

Editor Surname, Initial(s). and Editor Surname, Initial(s). (eds.) (Year of publication) Title of book (in italics). edition (only include if not the first). Place of Publication: Publisher.

Example

Lechner, F. J. and Boli, J. (eds.) (2012) The globalization reader. 4th edn. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell.

Chapter of an edited book – Single author

Components

Author Surname, Initial(s). (Year of publication) ‘Title of chapter’ (in single quotation marks), in Editor Surname, Initial(s). (ed.) Title of book (in italics). edition (only include if not the first). Place of Publication: Publisher, pp. page numbers of chapter.

Example

Quirke, E. T. (2006) ‘Older people in Irish mental health law’, in O’Dell, E. (ed.) Older people in modern Ireland: Essays on law and policy. Dublin: First Law, pp. 268-292.

Chapter of an edited book – Two authors

Components

Author Surname, Initial(s). and Author Surname, Initial(s). (Year of publication) ‘Title of chapter’ (in single quotation marks), in Editor Surname, Initial(s). and Editor Surname, Initial(s). Title of book (in italics). edition (only include if not the first). Place of Publication: Publisher, pp. page numbers of chapter.

Example

Harmon, C. and Newman, C. (2008) ‘Education: Market failure and government interventions’, in O’Hagan, J. and Newman, C. (eds.) The economy of Ireland: National and sectoral policy issues. 10th edn. Dublin: Gill and Macmillan, pp. 316-338.

NB: See the NCI Library Referencing Guide for further details including additional sources, in-text citations, and bibliographies.

eBook – Single author

Components

Author Surname, Initial(s). (Year of publication) Title of book (in italics). edition (only include if not the first). Database Name. Available at: url [Accessed Day Month Year].

Example

Dyson, J. R. (2010) Accounting for non-accounting students. 8th edn. Dawsonera. Available at: https://ezproxy.ncirl.ie:2157/abstract/9780273723011 [Accessed 13 July 2015].

eBook – Two authors

Components

Author Surname, Initial(s). and Author Surname, Initial(s). (Year of publication) Title of book (in italics). edition (only include if not the first). Database Name (in italics). Available at: url [Accessed Day Month Year].

Example

Atrill, P. and McLaney, E. (2014) Accounting and finance for non-specialists. 9th edn. Dawsonera. Available at: https://ezproxy.ncirl.ie:2157/abstract/9781292062785 [Accessed 9 May 2018].

eBook – Three or more authors

Components

Author Surname, Initial(s)., Author Surname, Initial(s). and Author Surname, Initial(s). (Year of publication) Title of book (in italics). edition (only include if not the first). Database Name. Available at: url [Accessed Day Month Year].

Example

Saunders, M., Lewis, P. and Thornhill, A. (2015) Research methods for business students. 7th edn. Dawsonera. Available at: https://ezproxy.ncirl.ie:2157/abstract/9781292016641 [Accessed 9 May 2018].

NB: See the NCI Library Referencing Guide for further details including additional sources, in-text citations, and bibliographies.

Journal article – Single author

Components

Author Surname, Initial(s). (Year of publication) ‘Title of article’ (in single quotation marks), Name of Journal (in italics), volume number(issue number), pp. page numbers of article.

Example

Kouchaki, M. (2015) ‘Professionalism and moral behavior’, Business & Society, 54(3), pp. 376-385.

Journal article – Two authors

Components

Author Surname, Initial(s). and Author Surname, Initial(s). (Year of publication) ‘Title of article’ (in single quotation marks), Name of Journal (in italics), volume number(issue number), pp. page numbers of article.

Example

Furr, N. and Dyer, J. H. (2014) ‘Leading your team into the unknown: How great managers empower their organizations to innovate’, Harvard Business Review, 92(12), pp. 80-88.

Journal article – Three or more authors

Components

Author Surname, Initial(s)., Author Surname, Initial(s). and Author Surname, Initial(s). (Year of publication) ‘Title of article’ (in single quotation marks), Name of Journal (in italics), volume number(issue number), pp. page numbers of article.

Example

Van der Voet, J., Kuipers, B. S. and Groeneveld, S. (2016) ‘Implementing change in public organizations: The relationship between leadership and affective commitment to change in a public sector context’, Public Management Review, 18(6), pp. 842-865.

NB: See the NCI Library Referencing Guide for further details including additional sources, in-text citations, and bibliographies.

eJournal article – Single author

Components

Author Surname, Initial(s). (Year of publication) ‘Title of article’ (in single quotation marks), Name of Journal (in italics), volume number(issue number), pp. page numbers of article, Database Name. doi: / or Available at: url [Accessed Day Month Year].

Example

Hornungová, J. (2017) ‘Nonfinancial performance evaluation as significant area of strategic business management’, Business: Theory and Practice, 18(1), pp. 71- 78, Business Source Complete. doi: 10.3846/btp.2017.008.

eJournal article – Two authors

Components

Author Surname, Initial(s). and Author Surname, Initial(s). (Year of publication) ‘Title of article’ (in single quotation marks), Name of Journal (in italics), volume number(issue number), pp. page numbers of article, Database Name. doi: / or Available at: url [Accessed Date Month Year].

Example

Moye, N. A. and Langfred, C. W. (2004) ‘Information sharing and group conflict: Going beyond decision making to understand the effects of information sharing on group performance’, International Journal of Conflict Management, 15(4), pp. 381-410, Emerald. doi: 10.1108/eb022919.

eJournal article – Three or more authors

Components

Author Surname, Initial(s)., Author Surname, Initial(s)., Author Surname, Initial(s). and Author Surname, Initial(s). (Year of publication) ‘Title of article’ (in single quotation marks), Name of Journal (in italics), volume number(issue number), pp. page numbers of article, Database Name. doi: / or Available: at: url [Accessed Day Month Year].

Example

Fini, R., Rasmussen, E., Siegel, D. and Wiklund, J. (2018) ‘Rethinking the commercialization of public science: From entrepreneurial outcomes to societal impacts’, Academy of Management Perspectives, 32(1), pp. 4-20, Business Source Complete. doi: 10.5465/amp.2017.0206.

NB: See the NCI Library Referencing Guide for further details including additional sources, in-text citations, and bibliographies.

Conference paper - Three or more authors

Components

Author Surname, Initial(s)., Author Surname, Initial(s). and Author Surname, Initial(s). (Year of publication) ‘Title of paper’ (in single quotation marks), in Title of Publication/Conference (in italics). Location of Conference, Date Month Year of Conference, pp. page numbers of conference paper, Database Name. doi: / or Available at: url [Accessed Day Month Year].

Example

Chen, L., Rahayu, W. and Taniar, D. (2010) ‘Towards near real-time data warehousing’, in 2010 24th IEEE International Conference on Advanced Information Networking and Applications (AINA). Perth, Australia, 20-23 April 2010, pp. 1150-1157, IEEE Xplore. doi: 10.1109/AINA.2010.54.

NB: See the NCI Library Referencing Guide for further details including additional sources, in-text citations, and bibliographies.

Webpage

Components

Author of Website/Webpage (Year of publication) Title of webpage (in italics). Available at: url [Accessed Day Month Year].

Example

Business & Finance (2015) Flexible working worth €2.5bn to Irish economy. Available at: http://businessandfinance.com/news/flexible-working-worth-e2-5bn-to-irish-economy/ [Accessed 8 September 2015].

Document from a webpage

Components

Author of Website/Webpage (Year of publication) Title of document (in italics). Available at: url [Accessed Day Month Year].

Example

Tissot, B. (2018) Providing comparable information to assess global financial stability risks. Available at: http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/documents/7870049/8597562/KS-FT-18-001-EN-N.pdf/83ac4786-c3b2-467b-a2f9-feeb630d74fe [Accessed 8 May 2018].

NB: See the NCI Library Referencing Guide for further details including additional sources, in-text citations, and bibliographies.

Newspaper article – Print

Components

Author Surname, Initial(s). (Year of publication) ‘Title of article’ (in single quotation marks), Name of Newspaper (in italics), Newspaper Section (if relevant, also in italics), Date and Month of publication, p. page number of article.

Example

Keenan, B. (2012) ‘We are hamstrung by idiotic tax election pledge on tax rates’, Irish Independent, Business This Week, 8 November, p. 4.

Newspaper article – Online

Components

Author Surname, Initial(s). (Year of publication) ‘Title of article’ (in single quotation marks), Name of Newspaper (in italics), Date and Month of publication. Available at: url [Accessed Day Month Year].

Example

Gibbons, J. (2012) ‘Steady as she goes: Global climatic denial guarantees chaotic future for all’, Irish Times, 30 November. Available at: https://www.irishtimes.com/opinion/steady-as-she-goes-globalclimatic-denial-guarantees-chaotic-future-for-all-1.558883 [Accessed 30 November 2012].

NB: See the NCI Library Referencing Guide for further details including additional sources, in-text citations, and bibliographies.

Case study – Print

Components

Author Surname, Initial(s). and Author Surname, Initial(s). (Year of publication) Title of case study (in italics), case, Place of Publication: Publisher.

Example

Ibarra, H. and Sackley, N. (2011) Charlotte Beers at Ogilvy and Mather Worldwide (A), case, Boston, M.A.: Harvard Business School Publishing.

Case study – Online

Components

Author Surname, Initial(s). (Year of publication) Title of case study (in italics), case. Available at: url [Accessed Day Month Year].

Example

Isaacs, R. (2015) Goodbye serious: How social sells Wall's Ice Cream, case. Available at: https://www.warc.com/Content/64fcc122-cad4-4db5-b011-c9fb9beddd4a [Accessed 14 July 2015].

NB: See the NCI Library Referencing Guide for further details including additional sources, in-text citations, and bibliographies.

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NCI Library Referencing Guide

Harvard Referencing Quick Guide

Disclaimer

Whilst every possible effort has been made to accurately and consistently reflect the APA, Harvard and IEEE styles in the examples provided, small errors may occur. This LibGuide is regularly revised and any errors which are identified will be rectified immediately. Please note, there are also variations within these styles regarding certain details – should your reference vary slightly from an example contained within this LibGuide, it is important that you are consistent with the variation when presenting and formatting your references, as long as it does not follow a contrary style to the one you should be using.