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Mobile and Web Technologies Subject Guide: Referencing

How to reference

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The standard system used at the National College of Ireland to reference your essays, reports, thesis etc. is the Harvard System.This citation style provides for in-text citation and the creation of a bibliography to be appended to the end of your work.

Getting Started


There are two components to Harvard referencing: in-text citations in your paper and the bibliography at the end of your paper. The current example is a book with one author.

In-text references:

These are brief and only provide as much information as is necessary to identify the source as it appears in the Reference List/Bibliography. If you are paraphrasing the author in your words you provide the author's name and year of publication in parentheses. 

Example: Gunnigle suggests focusing on the nature of the job when evaluating the suitability of candidates for the role(Gunnigle, 2011).

If you are quoting directly from the text you provide the author's surname, the year of publication and a page number in parentheses.

Example: "A clear focus on the job content will indicate the types of behaviours that are required to do the job"(Gunnigle, 2011, p.115).

Bibliography reference:

The reference to a work which is appended to the end of your paper should include, in this example, the author's surname, initial(s), year of publication, title of book in italics, edition, place of publication and publisher.

Example: Gunnigle, P., (2011) Human resource management in Ireland. 4th ed. Dublin: Gill and Macmillan.

More information and many examples of how to reference different material and formats are available in the booklet 1stCite@NCI.




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Keith Brittle
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