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Finance/FinTech and Pensions Subject Guide: Referencing

How to reference


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The standard system used at the National College of Ireland to reference your essays, reports, theses etc. is the Harvard system.This citation style provides for in-text citation and the creation of a bibliography to be appended at the end of your work.

Getting Started

There are two components to Harvard referencing: in-text citations in your paper and the bibliography at the end of your paper. The examples given below are for a book with one author.

In-text references:

In-text references are comprised of just the author(s') surname(s), the year of publication and (if a quotation) the page number; just enough information as is necessary to identify the source as it appears in the Reference List/Bibliography. . 

Single Author Examples: 

If you are paraphrasing you provide the author's surname and year of publication (in brackets).

Example: Reidy (2015) suggests that it may be difficult to fill some vacancies as the role may be thought to be low paid or considered to be difficult.

If you are quoting directly from the text you provide the author's surname, the year of publication and a page number in brackets.

Example: “Some vacancies are difficult to fill due to the nature of the job itself.  It may be perceived to be unpleasant, dangerous, badly paid or too stressful” (Reidy, 2015, p. 46).

Bibliography reference:

The reference to a work which is appended to the end of your paper should include, in this example, the author's surname, initial(s), year of publication, title of book in italics, edition, place of publication and publisher.

Example: Reidy, L. (2015) Make that grade: human resource management. 4th ed. Dublin: Gill and Macmillan.

More information and many examples of how to reference different material and formats are available in the booklet 1stCite@NCI.

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Consult these guides for information on Harvard referencing